Gastrointestinal & Hepatobiliary Consultation Service

The GI-Hepatobiliary pathology division offers consultation service for biopsies and resections of the liver, gallbladder, biliary tree, pancreas and gastrointestinal tract. A wide armamentarium of immunohistochemical stains and specialized assays such as albumin in situ hybridization, fluorescence in situ hybridization and institutional next generation sequencing assay covering 500 genes (UCSF 500) is available for diagnostic use. Electron microscopy is available when necessary.

The UCSF GI-Hepatobiliary pathology consult service was started by Dr. Linda Ferrell and over the years has gained national and international recognition with more than 1500 consultation cases per year covering both adult and pediatric medical liver diseases, liver tumors, and neoplastic as well as non-neoplastic gastrointestinal and pancreaticobiliary diseases. These include challenging cases sent by pathologists as well as cases submitted for second opinion by patients and treating physicians. For the latter situations, a copy of the report is provided to the original pathologist. Please feel free to call our consultants before submitting a case to discuss pertinent details, or after the case has been signed out to discuss the diagnosis and provide follow-up.


The consultation service is primarily handled by Drs. Sanjay Kakar, Grace Kim, and Ryan Gill, with assistance from Drs. Soo-Jin Cho (added expertise in Pediatric Pathology and Bone and Soft Tissue Pathology) and Rageshree Ramachandran. Dr. Ferrell is occasionally available to consult on a case, as an Emeritus Professor, Collectively, we have published over 400 manuscripts on the liver and GI and pancreaticobiliary pathology, over 50 textbooks or chapters, and provided numerous lectures and courses at national and international meetings. 


Linda D. Ferrell, MDLinda D. Ferrell, MD
Distinguished Professor Emerita

Dr. Linda Ferrell trained under Sir Roderick MacSween and, as one of the foremost liver pathology experts, began accepting GI & Hepatobiliary consultations from around the world and training a future generation of liver/GI pathology subspecialists.


Sanjay Kakar, MDSanjay Kakar, MD
Chief, UCSF GI and Hepatobiliary Service
UCSF Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Fellowship Director
Past President, Rodger C. Haggitt GI Path Society
Past President, Hans Popper Hepatopathology Society

Dr. Sanjay Kakar joined UCSF after completing a GI-hepatobiliary and molecular pathology fellowships at the Mayo Clinic and has directed the GI & Hepatobiliary Pathology fellowship program since 2015. 


Grace E. Kim, MDGrace E. Kim, MD
Board Certified Pediatric Pathologist
Vice Chair of Clinical ServicesSecretary-Treasurer and Executive Committee Member, Secretary-Treasurer, Hans Popper Hepatopathology Society and Pancreatobiliary Pathology Society

Dr. Grace Kim is Pathology Vice Chair of Clinical Services with long-standing expertise in GI tract, liver and pancreatic pathology.


Ryan M. Gill, MD, PhDRyan M. Gill, MD, PhD
Director of Surgical Pathology
Board Certified Hematopathologist
Fellowship trained in GI & Liver Pathology (UCSF)

Dr. Ryan Gill completed liver/GI fellowship training under Dr. Ferrell in 2010 and is also a board certified hematopathologist with special interest in lymphomas of the GI tracts and liver.  Dr. Gill has served as the Director of Surgical Pathology since 2017. 


Rageshree Ramachandran, MD, PhDRageshree Ramachandran, MD, PhD
Associate Professor
Director of Medical Education
Fellowship trained in GI & Liver Pathology (UCSF)


Soo-Jin Cho, MD, PhDSoo-Jin Cho, MD, PhD
Assistant Professor
Board Certified Pediatric Pathologist
Fellowship trained in GI & Liver Pathology (UCSF)




Liver Tumor
  • Chen B, et al. Gastroenterology. 2017 Mar 8. pii: S0016-5085(17)30264-0
  • Hale G, et al. Mod Pathol. 2016 Nov;29(11):1370-1380
  • Tsokos CG, et al. Hum Pathol. 2016 Nov;57:61-67
  • Gill RM, et al. Hum Pathol. 2016 Aug;54:143-51
  • Cho SJ et al. Hum Pathol 2016, 50:135-9
  • Balabaud C, et al. Hum Pathol 2015, 46(4): 634-5
  • Kakar S, et al. Modern Pathology 2015, 28(1): 159-60
  • Shafizadeh N, et al. Hum Pathol 2014, 45(5):976-83
  • Kakar S, et al. Mod Pathol 2014, 27(11):1499-509
  • Kakar S, et al. Hum Pathol 2014, 45(3):660-1
  • Joseph NM, et al. Mod Pathol 2014, 27(1):62-72
  • Kakar S, et al. Hum Pathol 2014, 45(3):660-1
  • Evason KJ, et al. Hum Pathol 2013, 44(5)5:750-8
  • Tsai JH, et al. Mod Pathol. 2017 Mar 3. doi:10.1038/modpathol.2017.13
  • Ajmera V, et al. Hepatology. 2017 Jan;65(1):65-77
  • Yang JD, et al. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017 Jan;15(1):127-131.e2
  • Gill RM and Kakar S. Surg Pathol Clin 2013, 6(2):227-258
  • Guy CD, et al. Hum Pathol 2012, 43(6):790-800
  • Bhamba K, et al. Hepatology 2012, 55(3):769-80
  • Gill RM, et al. Am J Surg Pathol 2011,35(9):1400-4
Liver Transplant
  • Choi WT, et al. Am J Surg Pathol. 2017 Mar;41(3):365-373
General Hepatobiliary
  • Geha R, et al. N Engl J Med. 2017 Mar 2;376(9):869-874
  • Giard JM, et al. ACG Case Rep J. 2016 Nov 23;3(4):e162
  • Choi WT, et al. Case Rep Gastroenterol. 2016 May 19;10(1):81-7